In this file photo, Paramount Bard Academy sixth grade teacher Joanna Kendrick-Miranda helps 11-year-old Miguel Jaime with his journal that he will read to the class later.

Teachers remember their students, even the rambunctious ones. Sarah Canales can attest to that. 

One day when she was substitute teaching, a young boy used profane language aimed at her in class, and she wrote him up.

Rather than suspending the student, administrators decided to take a different approach through the alternate placement program. Educators talk with students to understand the root cause of the behavior and give them the tools to get back on track and navigate through the day without having the issues or outbursts they've exhibited in the past.

Canales ended up working with the defiant student in the alternate placement program, and through conversations learned his emotional distress came from an unstable relationship with his mother. With time and effort, Canales said she "could see the lightbulb go off."

"Having that time with him, I think we had some really real moments," she said. "He still has his problems, his issues, but I think overall compared to when I first met him to where I see him now, I feel like there’s been a progression."

These changes are what the state hopes to see now that Senate Bill 419 bans public and charter schools from suspending students in fourth and fifth grades for "willful defiance," while it eliminates it for sixth through eighth grades for five years. A previous law banned schools from suspending defiant students from kindergarten through third grade.

The law takes effect July 1.

Willful defiance is behavior that “disrupted school activities or otherwise willfully defied the valid authority of supervisors, teachers, administrators, school officials, or other school personnel engaged in the performance of their duties,” according to the law.

The hope is by keeping children in school rather than sending them home, they can work with teachers and counselors to improve their behaviors. 

"I think everybody really feels like we need our kids in school to educate them, and suspension is not a great thing," said Fruitvale School District Superintendent Mary Westendorf. "If they can’t read, we’re not going to send them home and expect them to get better at reading. There are things we can do to help."

In recent years, local school districts have moved away from suspending students in those grades for defiant behavior and looked to different approaches that focus on getting to the root of why a child acts out.

Lucas Hogue, assistant superintendent of personnel for Greenfield Union School District, said his schools focus on educating students on what is appropriate behavior from an early age. If they deviate, rather than suspending them, "we’re having to get more creative on how to address behavior."

A main disciplinary approach includes Positive Behavior Interventions and Support, which defines standards for student behavior and positively reinforces the behavior. Students are shown how to interact with their teachers and peers in an effort to correct the defiant behavior. Other intervention methods work similarly.

The district's suspension rate show these approaches have results. In the 2017-18 school year, 67 students were suspended for willful defiance, Hogue said, compared to one this school year.

If the district sees a student is not improving through intervention, it pursues other assessments, such as determining whether the student suffers from a mental health issue, is in need of special education or counseling services, or if there are issues at home.

At Fruitvale School District, parent conferences, referrals to counselors or psychologists, a multi-tiered system of support and restorative justice programs, where specific behaviors are addressed, are all methods used to improve defiant behavior.

For students who were at high risk of being sent to APP, Canales said she would visit with them throughout the day and "try to get their day started in the right direction" as a type of preventive measure.

This new law doesn't come without its critics, however. Many parents might think there will be more disruptions in classrooms now that suspension is off the table or that little acts will be swept under the rug. But many agree sending children home will do little or no good.

"I do feel like teachers should have law and order, and those standards should be met at all times," parent Gaby Schmidt said. "I don’t think suspension would be favored. It’s not a solution, it’s just a small Band-Aid for the day."

Ema Sasic can be reached at 661-395-7392. Follow her on Twitter: @ema_sasic.

(4) comments

Comment deleted.

Well said. Thank you for what you do.


Domestic terrorists like Delores and her pos foundation are drinking champagne


Horrible Policy. $$$$$ Because schools do not get state money for students not in school, the districts got rid of suspensions. Lol. That’s the reason pure n simple.

But you have maniac kids cussing out teachers and disrupting classes... yeah, that’s a positive. The teachers are disrespected and the student knows there are no consequences. So they just love it and jay it on even thicker, then laugh At the teachers and tell them, “whatcha gonna do... send me to the office! Go ahead. See ya later today or tomorrow Ha!!

Bad Pilicy in the name of $$$. Teachers should protest as this is unsafe procedure and creates monsters taking things to a new later as they never got disciplined or faced normal people consequence

Morons whoever voted that bill in Definitely endangering students and teachers. A kid acts crazy. Send him home. Schools were not made to be juvenile detention centers or psycho adjustment facilities. Kick em iut. Put em in juvenile hall or camp Owens or Youth Aughority. Do not reward maniacs.


This is the great state of California preparing children for life as an adult. That is, adult life in California where no one goes to jail anymore.

No doubt some kids can be dealt with with some compassion and understanding to help them through a bad period of childhood. Unfortunately, you nailed it on the head when parents see school as nothing but a day care. It puts a lot of burden on teachers and while they’re dealing with one problem there’s 50 other kids, without problems, getting ignored or slowed down. This is what happens when liberal policies are placed in lieu of parental responsibilities. Teachers are losing the battle when a child’s parents don’t care. It all starts in the home. Always has, always will.

Welcome to the discussion.

Keep it Clean. Please avoid obscene, vulgar, lewd, racist or sexually-oriented language.
Don't Threaten. Threats of harming another person will not be tolerated.
Be Truthful. Don't knowingly lie about anyone or anything.
Be Nice. No racism, sexism or any sort of -ism that is degrading to another person.
Be Proactive. Use the 'Report' link on each comment to let us know of abusive posts.
Share with Us. We'd love to hear eyewitness accounts, the history behind an article.